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Natbib Reference

Friday, September 29th, 2006 -- By ET

Reference sheet for natbib usage
(Describing version 7.0b from 2002/02/27)

For a more detailed description of the natbib package, LATEX the source file natbib.dtx.


The natbib package is a reimplementation of the LATEX \cite command, to work with both author-year and numerical citations. It is compatible with the standard bibliographic style files, such as plain.bst, as well as with those for harvard, apalike, chicago, astron, authordate.


Load with \usepackage[options]{natbib}. See list of options at the end.

Replacement bibliography styles

I provide three new .bst files to replace the standard LATEX numerical ones:

plainnat.bst         abbrvnat.bst         unsrtnat.bst

Basic commands

The natbib package has two basic citation commands, \citet and \citep for textual and parenthetical citations, respectively. There also exist the starred versions \citet* and \citep* that print the full author list, and not just the abbreviated one. All of these may take one or two optional arguments to add some text before and after the citation.

\citet{jon90} –> Jones et al. (1990)
\citet[chap. 2]{jon90} –> Jones et al. (1990, chap. 2)
\citep{jon90} –> (Jones et al., 1990)
\citep[chap. 2]{jon90} –> (Jones et al., 1990, chap. 2)
\citep[see][]{jon90} –> (see Jones et al., 1990)
\citep[see][chap. 2]{jon90} –> (see Jones et al., 1990, chap. 2)
\citet*{jon90} –> Jones, Baker, and Williams (1990)
\citep*{jon90} –> (Jones, Baker, and Williams, 1990)

Multiple citations

Multiple citations may be made by including more than one citation key in the \cite command argument.

\citet{jon90,jam91} –> Jones et al. (1990); James et al. (1991)
\citep{jon90,jam91} –> (Jones et al., 1990; James et al. 1991)
\citep{jon90,jon91} –> (Jones et al., 1990, 1991)
\citep{jon90a,jon90b} –> (Jones et al., 1990a,b)

Numerical mode

These examples are for author-year citation mode. In numerical mode, the results are different.

\citet{jon90} –> Jones et al. [21]
\citet[chap. 2]{jon90} –> Jones et al. [21, chap. 2]
\citep{jon90} –> [21]
\citep[chap. 2]{jon90} –> [21, chap. 2]
\citep[see][]{jon90} –> [see 21]
\citep[see][chap. 2]{jon90} –> [see 21, chap. 2]
\citep{jon90a,jon90b} –> [21, 32]

Suppressed parentheses

As an alternative form of citation, \citealt is the same as \citet but without parentheses. Similarly, \citealp is \citep without parentheses. Multiple references, notes, and the starred variants also exist.

\citealt{jon90} –> Jones et al. 1990
\citealt*{jon90} –> Jones, Baker, and Williams 1990
\citealp{jon90} –> Jones et al., 1990
\citealp*{jon90} –> Jones, Baker, and Williams, 1990
\citealp{jon90,jam91} –> Jones et al., 1990; James et al., 1991
\citealp[pg. 32]{jon90} –> Jones et al., 1990, pg. 32
\citetext{priv. comm.} –> (priv. comm.)

The \citetext command allows arbitrary text to be placed in the current citation parentheses. This may be used in combination with \citealp.

Partial citations

In author-year schemes, it is sometimes desirable to be able to refer to the authors without the year, or vice versa. This is provided with the extra commands

\citeauthor{jon90} –> Jones et al.
\citeauthor*{jon90} –> Jones, Baker, and Williams
\citeyear{jon90} –> 1990
\citeyearpar{jon90} –> (1990)

Forcing upper cased names

If the first author’s name contains a von part, such as “della Robbia”, then \citet{dRob98} produces “della Robbia (1998)”, even at the beginning of a sentence. One can force the first letter to be in upper case with the command \Citet instead. Other upper case commands also exist.

when \citet{dRob98} –> della Robbia (1998)
then \Citet{dRob98} –> Della Robbia (1998)
\Citep{dRob98} –> (Della Robbia, 1998)
\Citealt{dRob98} –> Della Robbia 1998
\Citealp{dRob98} –> Della Robbia, 1998
\Citeauthor{dRob98} –> Della Robbia

These commands also exist in starred versions for full author names.

Citation aliasing

Sometimes one wants to refer to a reference with a special designation, rather than by the authors, i.e. as Paper I, Paper II. Such aliases can be defined and used, textual and/or parenthetical with:

\defcitealias{jon90}{Paper I}
\citetalias{jon90} -> Paper I
\citepalias{jon90} -> (Paper I)

These citation commands function much like \citet and \citep: they may take multiple keys in the argument, may contain notes, and are marked as hyperlinks.

Selecting citation style and punctuation

Use the command \bibpunct with one optional and 6 mandatory arguments:

  1. the opening bracket symbol, default = (
  2. the closing bracket symbol, default = )
  3. the punctuation between multiple citations, default = ;
  4. the letter `n’ for numerical style, or `s’ for numerical superscript style, any other letter for author-year, default = author-year;
  5. the punctuation that comes between the author names and the year
  6. the punctuation that comes between years or numbers when common author lists are suppressed (default = ,);

The optional argument is the character preceding a post-note, default is a comma plus space. In redefining this character, one must include a space if one is wanted.

Example 1, \bibpunct{[}{]}{,}{a}{}{;} changes the output of


into [Jones et al. 1990; 1991, James et al. 1992].Example 2, \bibpunct[; ]{(}{)}{,}{a}{}{;} changes the output of

\citep[and references therein]{jon90}

into (Jones et al. 1990; and references therein).

Other formatting options

  • Redefine \bibsection to the desired sectioning command for introducing the list of references. This is normally \section* or \chapter*.
  • Define \bibpreamble to be any text that is to be printed after the heading but before the actual list of references.
  • Define \bibfont to be a font declaration, e.g. to apply to the list of references.
  • Define \citenumfont to be a font declaration or command like \itshape or \textit.
  • Redefine \bibnumfmt as a command with an argument to format the numbers in the list of references. The default definition is [#1].
  • The indentation after the first line of each reference is given by \bibhang; change this with the \setlength command.
  • The vertical spacing between references is set by \bibsep; change this with the \setlength command.

Automatic indexing of citations

If one wishes to have the citations entered in the .idx indexing file, it is only necessary to issue \citeindextrue at any point in the document. All following \cite commands, of all variations, then insert the corresponding entry to that file. With \citeindexfalse, these entries will no longer be made.

Use with chapterbib package

The natbib package is compatible with the chapterbib package which makes it possible to have several bibliographies in one document.

The package makes use of the \include command, and each \included file has its own bibliography.

The order in which the chapterbib and natbib packages are loaded is unimportant.

The chapterbib package provides an option sectionbib that puts the bibliography in a \section* instead of \chapter*, something that makes sense if there is a bibliography in each chapter. This option will not work when natbib is also loaded; instead, add the option to natbib.

Every \included file must contain its own \bibliography command where the bibliography is to appear. The database files listed as arguments to this command can be different in each file, of course. However, what is not so obvious, is that each file must also contain a \bibliographystyle command, preferably with the same style argument.

Sorting and compressing citations

Do not use the \cite package with natbib; rather use one of the options sort or sort&compress.These also work with author-year citations, making multiple citations appear in their order in the reference list.

Long author list on first citation

Use option longnamesfirst to have first citation automatically give the full list of authors.Suppress this for certain citations with \shortcites{key-list}, given before the first citation.

Local configuration

Any local recoding or definitions can be put in natbib.cfg which is read in after the main package file.

Options that can be added to \usepackage

  • round: (default) for round parentheses;
  • square: for square brackets;
  • curly: for curly braces;
  • angle: for angle brackets;
  • colon: (default) to separate multiple citations with colons;
  • comma: to use commas as separaters;
  • authoryear: (default) for author-year citations;
  • numbers: for numerical citations;
  • super: for superscripted numerical citations, as in Nature;
  • sort: orders multiple citations into the sequence in which they appear in the list of references;
  • sort&compress: as sort but in addition multiple numerical citations are compressed if possible (as 3-6, 15);
  • longnamesfirst: makes the first citation of any reference the equivalent of the starred variant (full author list) and subsequent citations normal (abbreviated list);
  • sectionbib: redefines \thebibliography to issue \section* instead of \chapter*; valid only for classes with a \chapter command; to be used with the chapterbib package;
  • nonamebreak: keeps all the authors’ names in a citation on one line; causes overfull hboxes but helps with some hyperref problems.

About this document …

This document was generated using the LaTeX2HTML translator Version 200 2-1 (1.68), © 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, Nikos Drakos, Computer Based Learning Unit, University of Leeds, © 1997, 1998, 1999, Ross Moore, Mathematics Department, Macquarie University, Sydney.

The command line arguments were: latex2html -split 0 -no_navigation -t 'Natbib reference sheet' natnote s.tex

Original file: natnotes.tex, © 1993-2002 Patrick W Daly, Max-Planck-Institut fr Aeronomie, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau

The original LATEX file was modified by S. Merkel, Institute for Solid State Physics, Univ. of Tokyo, on 12/26/2002 to be converted to HTML properly.

The resulting HTML file was modified by S. Merkel as well.

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Thursday, September 28th, 2006 -- By Jade


每次我出门回来就会有很深很深的犯罪感: 唉, 又吃了不该吃的东西了. 进商场第一件事就事买个蛋挞吃着, 出商场最后一件事是再买块奶油蛋糕或面包吃. 没每次吃到最后我都腻的不行了, 满脑子都是不健康的犯罪感. 唉, 就是关不住自己, 凡是看见蛋糕店就象被催眠了一样.


薇薇现在整个是个招财小猫眯啊. 见了人, 摆手; 见乐玩具, 摆手; 见了车, 摆手, 看见镜子, 摆手; 看见立在那里的书柜也要摆手. 那个摆手的姿势破是可爱, 小手实际上是在自己的小脸边上不住的划圆圈. 最搞笑的是再见了. 有时, 对他薇薇说: “薇薇,bye,和妈妈(爸爸,姐姐,阿姨@##$%)byebye” 有时她会很积极的和你招招小手, 很象是那么回事儿. 有时就若有所思的看着人关上门, 然后再福至心灵的对着关上的门招手. 由于薇薇摆手的频率比较高, 和商店立摆的招财猫比较的象, 所以偶们最叫她招财妹.


这里大小姐开生日party的日子还期望八千里呢, 萱萱就每隔一天都要念道一次: “妈妈, 我快要过生日了么”? 达曰: “还早, 还有3个多月呢”. “妈妈, 3 不是很短么?” 达曰: 不短, 3个月, 不是3分钟, 有100多天呢.” 似乎明白了. ” 妈妈, 我要请Fran, Olivia, 豆豆, Nills来行么?” 这时她爸爸会出来说: 他们太远了, 来不了@#$%^. “妈妈, 那你要给我买@#$$%^&*生日礼物啊.

唉, 每天如此, 周而复始, 我都快不行了, 简直一个小唐憎啊.


小豆已经去看了2次牙医, 每次回来都痛不欲生的和我控诉牙医一番. 今天早晨又去了, 我有点偷偷的乐着对他说: 今天中文你吃什么? 牙医真的好恐怖啊.


Wednesday, September 27th, 2006 -- By Jade





Wednesday, September 20th, 2006 -- By Jade


自从Natalie来了以后, 小豆再也不用刷碗了, 下班高兴了陪娃玩一会, 忙了上上电脑. 中午回家吃每天不重样的饭.

今天, 早晨, 小豆同学先去健康的游了泳, 上班; 然后, 中午12点20到家吃饭, 12点50吃完饭, 临出门, 又回来了, 说要睡个午觉, 让偶1点30叫他. 1点40, 睡的红光满面的小豆上班去了.

我心想: 这不是10年前国企的作息么?


Wednesday, September 20th, 2006 -- By Jade

小家伙从今天开始正式会爬了. 是那种用膝盖来爬的. 这个小薇薇大概从从2周前试图用肚皮贴着地爬, 蹭啊蹭的, 连滚带爬的可以从床折头咕噜到另一头. 这两天, Natalie经常那个小玩具放在她面前, 就是这么练习了3天的样子, 小家伙居然就会爬了. 还不到8个月. 呵呵, 超过偶的预期. 今天吃晚饭前薇薇就爬着去那姐姐的玩具了. 薇薇这一会爬, 萱萱就着急了, 大喊到: 妹妹! 你不能这样. 最后萱萱也趴在地上, 用胳膊搂着她的玩具, 好不让刚刚会爬的妹妹抢走. 我和她们的老爸只好有苦口婆心的教导萱萱要分玩具给妹妹玩, 说的我头都大了.

薇薇爬的时候, 很是好笑, 嘴里叽叽咕咕的. 有时爬累了, 就会小手一撑,一屁股坐在地上, 四处张望.

看来薇薇的运动能力还是很强的, 5个半月会坐, 7个多月会爬. 就是到现在一个牙也没有. 不过, 我还不着急, 长牙再晚, 应该也不会比姐姐晚(萱萱13个月才长第一个牙).


Friday, September 15th, 2006 -- By Jade

就是不一样! 没helper 和有helper 就是不一样. 我们家现在终于超级整齐了. 这真是千年都没有见过的景儿啊.
Natalie 昨天晚上8点多进门后, 就把偶家厨房清结的干干净净, 一尘不染. 搞得偶粉不好意思的几次去厨房对她说: 您请去休息. 今天早晨偶门还没起床, Natalie就已经把客厅整理的整整齐齐, 开始张罗着热准备早饭, 准备完早饭, 有张罗着给萱萱换衣服……….总之她这一天把偶家大部分区域 (偶家太大, 一次擦完也不容易啊) 里里外外擦了一遍, 听见薇薇哭了, 还要来帮偶抱抱.我呢, 也是小器, 一时舍不得把薇薇给她, 硬是自己抗着沉沉的小家伙.吸地时, 还不忘了开了洗衣机洗衣服. 下午去帮我买菜, 还是硬要去街市(类似农贸市场)买, 说那儿便宜. 买完菜, 来就做. ……然有洗碗, 然后, 洗萱萱, 然后有整理厨房.

还有, 这位Natalie还曾经在菲律宾做过幼儿园老师, 逗得薇薇还是眉开眼笑的. 连最近酷不爱洗澡的萱萱都被她从头倒脚洗了个干净.

总 之, 有了Natalie, 我好像不用做什么家务了. 可是… 我这不是地主婆么? 啥都不干? 我还真是劳动人民本色啊, 这样子我还真有点心虚. 过不了一会儿, 我就会去厨房什么的问候一下她.(估摸着, Natalie都觉得偶怪烦的了) 嗯, 过两天就习惯了吧.

总之, 我们还是很走运的. 从第一天的表现来看, Natalie 是个很好的helper.( 赞一下, 小豆面试helper的能力)

nobody is perfect

Thursday, September 14th, 2006 -- By ET

Cool T-Shirt!

Two sentences are both true, but putting them together, it feels strange.

Eliticism, The Wisdom of the Crowd, Wooden Barrel Theory, the Law of Large Numbers, and the Winner’s Curse

Thursday, September 14th, 2006 -- By ET

There is a widely acclaimed saying in China:

“Three stinky cobblers working together can outsmart Zhuge Liang”

[Zhuge Liang is the most famous military strategist in Chinese history, he is a household name, and is considered as an incarnation for wisdom]

It generally talks about the power of aggregated knowledge, which is the foundation of the political systems such as the congress, the senete, etc.

British scientist Francis Galton, as other British elites, believed that only a few elites can have the capacity to organize and maintain a stable society. To prove his point, he randomly sampled 800 people, asking them to guess the weight of an ox. To his surprise, the average guess 1,197 pounds is amazingly close to the real number 1,198 pounds. He concluded after that experiment:

under the right circumstances, groups are remarkably intelligent, and are often smarter than the smartest people in them. Groups do not need to be dominated by exceptionally intelligent people in order to be smart. Even if most of the people within a group are not especially well-informed or rational, it can still reach a collectively wise decision.

In mathematics terms, this is simply the law of larger numbers, which states that: the average of a randomly selected sample from a large population is likely to be close to the average of the whole population. What happened in the Ox experiment is that some people overestimated the weight, and some underestimated it, the law of large numbers pulls the estimates toward the middle, which, as it shows, is amazingly close to the real number.

This, however, is not the whole story!

As we know, in teams, the performance of a team is severely influenced by the least capable member. In military situations, sometimes all it takes to win a battle is to attack the weakest point of the enemy. There is a wooden barrel theory stating that the capacity of a barrel is determined not by the longest wooden bar, but by the shortest. This is in contradition to the previous story about wisdom of the crowd. The lower bound means much more in this case!

Talking about estimating numbers, there is an interesting theory in economics called the winner’s curse. The winnner’s curse happens in auctions. Suppose there is a potential oil field for bidding, several companies are competing for the right to drill the oil. Each of them sends out the best analyst to estimate the value of the field. Similar to the Ox experiment, some will overestimate, and some will underestimate. But different from the Ox story, here, the winner will be the one who has the highest estimation. By the law of large numbers, this winning company will most probably overestimate the value. Then although it wins the auction, it may not get the profit as expected.

In all the above stories, the elite (whoever deviates from the average) loses. If you are near the average… hehe, sorry, by definition, you are not elite. Then why the society values the elites so much? In what circumstances elites are needed? Under what conditions, the elite person, the average person, the least capable person is most important?

I wanted to write more, linking everything to the information flow discussed in Hayek’s 1945 seminal paper “the use of knowledge in society”, but I need to get back to work. Let me try to finish this sometime later…

Until next time!

[I appologize for the long title :-p]


Wednesday, September 13th, 2006 -- By Jade

这两天我欢心鼓舞, 因为天气终于凉快了.我甚至在家里有时都觉得有点凉了.

上周六一早起来感觉就是很不一样的. 这叫一个凉爽啊. 吃着早饭, 凉凉的小风吹着, 就是一个 “爽” 字啊. 呵呵, 第一次在香港感觉到凉爽, 偶们还是很激动的. 我哼着小曲儿, 歌颂了一下凉爽的天气. 为了不辜负这个凉快的天. 我们一家四口穿戴整齐准备在外面度过美好的一天. 先打了个车到了著名的西贡. 没来hk前我一直以为西贡在越南呢, 其实西贡离我们家是不远的(小豆说, 越南也有个西贡), 坐车也就15分钟. 到达西贡正是饭点儿. 是有一些人扒在海边的栏杆上往下看, 还有一些在马路上溜达着. 我说是 “一些人”, 那是因为比较起铜锣湾的人山人海来这些个人简直可以忽略不计了. 刚下taxi , 就会有说着香港话的大妈大婶来拉生意. 我反正除了大妈夸偶的女儿们是 “靓女” 外啥也没听懂. 小豆说是拉客人坐摆渡去玩的. 估计那大妈也挺郁闷地, 那么卖力地说了不下10分钟, 怎么还拉不倒客人呢?


我们先是在栏杆边溜达着. 这里的一景就是渔民们划着小渔船在海边卖生猛海鲜, 有各种石斑, 有龙虾, 螃蟹…. n 多种鱼. 每种鱼也九一两条的样子放在装了海水的所料盒子离养着, 等着人来买走吃掉. 我费了九牛二虎的劲 (连蒙带猜, 这个渔民们说的香港话特别格外的难懂啊) 才从渔民那里打听到这些个鱼是在大船上打的, 就是本地的海里的. 有人们可以在这里买了去旁边的饭馆里做, 每一个菜, 饭馆收油料费35至50港币不等.(买跳鱼花$200, 吃到嘴要花$235-$250) 即使在饭馆的水族馆里买了鱼, 每个菜也要收油料费. 这 “油料 “还是相当贵的. 这个西贡还是老外们的最爱. 很多在HK的老外都喜欢在这里住.

我们一行在 “洪记” 打发了中午饭. 说是 “打发” 这个词还是不对的. 我们在饭馆挑了3种活蹦乱跳的海鲜要了2碗饭. 萱萱看着那条红红的 “东星斑 “被捞出来的时候说:”妈妈, 它怎么不高兴了呀?” 总之, 最后结帐$500多. 还是不便宜的. 尤其是这些个饭馆做的水平还有待提高的. 按我一朋友说: 就是农民炒的菜. 呵呵, 不过即使如此西贡的海鲜还是要来一试的.


到了西贡, 一定要去 “满记甜品 “. 我是爱吃甜品的人, 觉得这家的甜品超赞. 我要了一份: 白雪黑珍珠. 那真是甜而不腻, 爽滑可口, 好吃极了. 对于 ” 榴莲” 很好奇的我忍不住点了个 “榴莲班戟(pancake)” 这个吃榴莲的感觉还是怪怪的. 其实我和小豆还是打心眼里不爱吃的, 两个人”年兄您请, 年兄您请” 了好几轮, 也才吃掉一个. 最后打着者榴莲嗝出了满记. 心里还是有点郁闷, 为什么那么好吃的”白雪黑珍珠”会被这个榴莲的味道盖住呢?

最后, 去了离偶们家很近的清水湾beach. 水清沙幼. 这里的海水以清出名. 很多大人小孩都在海水里戏玩. (这点倒是boston比不了的. Boston的海水太冷了, 没有办法在里面游泳.) 海边的感觉就是很好的. 连小小的薇薇也煞有模样的看着姐姐在海水中跑来跑去, 一桶一桶地把海水浇在自己堆地沙子堆上.

(对了, 最近地薇薇又坏又可爱, 我简直是爱不释手啊)

天就是这么”腾” 地一下凉快了. 晚上倒是有点凉飕飕地感觉. 昨天匆匆去商场买了几床被子回来, 这样才可以睡个暖和觉.

还有令人振奋的是明天Natalie (偶门的helper) 就要来了. 千盼万盼, 总算是盼出头了. hahaha…..不禁仰天大笑.


Wednesday, September 6th, 2006 -- By Jade

香港的蟑螂真的叫”小强”. 很喜欢郑裕玲, 黄子华的”男亲女爱”. 里面黄子华养了只名叫小强的蟑螂当宠物. 超级搞笑的连续短剧. 昨天想在科大注册个广东话课, 所以上网来看看他们学什么. 忽然发现蟑螂的广东话就是小强. 我豁然开朗, 原来香港的蟑螂都叫小强. 说起这些小强, 先不说他们强不强, 个儿头还够大的. 大的有半个手掌那么大. 刚到香港的时候, 小强们经常三三两两的在偶家厨房里溜达. 后来用了一次灭蟑螂的手榴弹, 小强们就消失了. 有一天, 我开厨房的们, 地上有个黑的一团东西. 我低下头仔细一看是个小强的尸体. 原来, 我这一开门就夹死了只蟑螂. 可能是应为这只小强平时好吃好和长的太大了, 在门下躲闪不及就牺牲了. 不过我还是感叹了一下自己的神功. 怎么就这么准呢? 又一天, 我又在电梯门口看见了一只被电梯门夹死的小强, 大概死因同上. 看样子小强有时太大了不是什么好事,会带来杀身之 祸.

昨天, 可喜可贺, 总算温度降到30度了, 湿度将到了80%. 昨天本小姐终于有兴致主动带着娃儿出走了一圈了. 回来还是一身汗. 要说我这人真是被波 士顿的夏天惯坏了. 小豆一直说波士顿的冬天太冷, 我对他说: 太热的夏天更难熬. 这不, 我现在天天盼着10月底, 听说那时的香港就会开始为期4个月的最舒服的日子了. 所以, 建议各位怕热, 怕潮, 还有怕长霉的同学夏天就不要到这里来长住了(想减肥的除外.), 要在11月到1月底之间来,会好受一些. 听说到了3月份湿度会99%的湿度, 是什么滋味呢? 期待着, 至少皮肤 不会觉得干燥了, 呵呵. 总之我还是证实了偶的想法: 太湿热的夏天更难过.

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